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Beginning to Breed Cattle and running a Cattle Ranch Business


Many food sectors are having a hard time, especially regional economies. The combination of a backward dollar, falling international prices, tax pressure and a sharp rise in domestic costs are the perfect justification that led to the disincentive and loss of business abroad. But with some policy changes, there are activities that have great potential and can regain lost ground. The key, as always, is to anticipate.

For more than a century, the country was one of the largest suppliers of meat in the world, and recognized for its quality; But, in the last years, protagonism lost to hands of producers with less tradition in the heading. In 2005, America was the third largest exporter globally: it now ranks eleventh, surpassed by its Mercosur partners (Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay).

The most paradigmatic case is Brazil, which during the 1990s imported meat and is now second in the ranking of exporters. Likewise, the advance of soybeans and other crops gained ground for the cows, not forgetting the state policies discouraging the sector. The opportunity to invest in American livestock is now, since it is a medium and long term business: due to natural issues of its process,

This is how it works –
The business of cows is related to the life cycle of the animal in its different stages. There are those who are engaged in breeding (they have cows and bulls and sell the calf) and those who opt for the rearing of the animal (buy the calves from the breeders, then feed them and sell the bulls – more than 300 kilos – to a greenhouse Which will be fattened to sell it to the refrigerator).

You can buy calves of 150/170 kilos average that will be sold, after the investment period of 365 days, in 280/320 kilos. The gain is the difference in weight, about 130 kilos between the calf and steer phase. It is important to clarify that the livestock business has very low climatic risk on natural pastures and generally has low mortality.

This is how you begin –
There are several ways to access the livestock business, directly related to the level of knowledge and money to invest. From small to large, the simplest and most economical way is through trusts, which offer interesting yields in both pesos and dollars, and where the investor obtains a profitability from a large scale business that he otherwise could not access . The system is very simple: the trustee manages the business, manages the capital of all investors and then returns the result of its management through a performance. The minimum investment is from $ 40 thousand and the projected yield in pesos ranges from 35 to 40 percent, while in dollars some offer the devaluation rate plus a few points of interest.

The other options are dealing with the activity in a particular way or buying / renting a suitable field surface for the chosen scale of business. Obviously, in these cases profit margins and risk increase.


10 Things that Pets should not eat especially Dogs & Cats

1. Do not give him bones

Baked bones are bad for animals! Each year countless numbers of animals end up in the emergency room because their owners have given them bones, usually as a reward.

The fact is that dogs are omnivorous. Many dogs and cats can not tolerate bones. Bones can get stuck or get stuck in the intestinal tract with disastrous results, which may require surgery.

They may also be stuck in the mouth or trachea, which is also dangerous. All cooked bones are bad, including chicken and beef.

The next time you want to give your dog a bone, make sure it is a milk bone, skirt bone that are almost cartilage or prepared for dogs. Your dog will thank you.

2. Chocolate can be lethal

It contains theobromine, which causes an increase in the heartbeat, stimulation of the central nervous system and constriction of the arteries. Clinical symptoms range from vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, and excitability, to heart failure, stroke, and death. This can happen as fast as 4 to 6 hours after ingestion. Cooked chocolate is the worst because it contains higher amounts of theobromine.

A potentially lethal dose is only 1 pound of chocolate for a 16 pound dog. If your pet has eaten too much chocolate, you should contact your veterinarian immediately.

3. Alcohol is also very bad for dogs and cats

It does not take much alcohol to intoxicate a pet. The animals will become nervous and attack things, hurting themselves. It also causes urinary incontinence. At high doses, alcohol suppresses the central nervous system, respiratory and cardiac system, and can lead to death.

4. Milk is not good for animals either

Most are lactose intolerant and will develop diarrhea. Animals also often lack the enzyme that is required to dissolve milk sugar, and this can cause them to develop vomiting, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Even if you think you like it, especially cats, you can only give lactose-free milk.

5. Ham and other salty meats

They are very dangerous for pets. In addition to being high in fats, they are also very salty, which can cause them serious stomach pains or pancreatitis.

Also, many breeds of dogs that eat salty foods can drink too much water and develop a chronic condition called “bloat”. This is when the stomach becomes full of gas and in a few hours can worsen, causing the animal to die. Please do not give him raw ham or very salty cooked meats to your pet.

6. Onions are toxic to dogs and cats

The onion contains disulfides, which damages the red blood cells of your blood and can cause fatal consequences in animals. They can become anemic, weak and with respiratory problems.

The best thing you can do if your pet has eaten onions is to take it immediately to the vet. Garlic is not suitable for dogs or cats, but is much more harmful in cats.

7. Caffeine is also bad for animals

It contains xanthine which, like chocolate, stimulates the central nervous system and the cardiac system and in a few hours can cause vomiting, hyperactivity, tachycardia and even death. Make sure your pets are away from breakfast.

8. The avocados

They are also bad for pets. First, they are very high in fat and can cause stomach pains, vomiting and even pancreatitis. Second, the pulp is also toxic and may become stuck in the intestinal tract, leading to a severe blockage, which may require surgery.

9. Tuna for humans is bad for cats

Feline heart muscle requires an amino acid called taurine to maintain normal strength and function. Normal tuna for humans does not contain this amino acid, and cats who eat too much tuna will develop heart problems. The ideal is to give them 3 times a week for the contribution of Omega 3 and 6 that are necessary for the heart, everything in excess is bad.

If you want to give cats the taste of love they love, just make sure that it is cat tuna that is the one that has the added amino acids taurine. Whenever it is tuna or mackerel your animals should be “to the natural or to the water” never in oil. The oil from the cans is extracted by vitamin E.

10. Raisins and grapes-eating

Raisins and grapes can lead to kidney damage in pets. Small dogs can also react badly with grapes so it is best to make sure our animals eat a well-balanced diet that is formulated for their life stage.


Very serious cases have been seen in the medical offices of animals that their owners by ignorance or disinformation, have medicated their pets on their own with dire consequences for the animals.

Never measure your pets on their own, Acetylsalicylic Acid is toxic to animals, humans are physiologically different from animals.

How do animals deal with floods?

Excessive rains can be harmful to many animals, even for those who live in the water, so it is necessary that they find new ways to survive them.

With the advent of the rainy season in the United States, animals in the wild and in captivity are developing new ways to cope with floods.

The reaction of the animals depends on three basic elements: the species, the personality of each animal and the possibility of access to shelters made by man.

In addition to humans, orangutans are the ones who have found the best ways to protect themselves from the rain, as these animals live in the jungles of Borneo and Sumatra where rainfall is a daily reality.

During the course of storms, orangutans produce protective awnings and a sort of “hat” with leaves; While in zoos they often use more attractive materials.

“Here in Seattle it rains practically every day,” Gigi Allianic, a spokeswoman for the city’s Woodland Zoo, told Discovery News. “Our orangutans are often wrapped in burlap bags and sit in the rain, but like many other zoo animals they also have the option of sheltering indoors.”

Most land animals are looking for some kind of shelter. In nature they can be hidden in a tree, a hollow trunk, under rocks or underground. Smaller animals such as squirrels and mice are piled inside their shelters to try to keep warm.

In addition, it seems that the rain annoys the vast majority of species, even the aquatic. During torrential rain, animals such as frogs, turtles and fish should be protected at the deepest levels of lakes and ponds; And seek shelter to avoid falling rocks and loose logs.

However, many animals remain out in the open and try to tolerate moisture.

“The brown bears of our zoo do this very often, despite having the option to enter the shelters,” Allianic said. He also added that bears are excellent swimmers.

“Crocodiles are very skilled at weathering the weather,” Nick Hanna, an assistant curator at the New Orleans Natural Audubon Institute, told Discovery News. “They remain calm and calm and never panic, not even in the worst storms.”

But some animals do lose their calm, though not necessarily because of the rain.

“We found that certain animals feel safer in the open than in a shelter,” Hanna said. “When enclosed, ostriches tend to hit the walls. And African antelopes sometimes get so scared that they also run straight into the walls. ”

These species, however, have awnings or open lateral structures to protect themselves from the sun and rain.

In some cases, the reaction of an animal is related to its own personality. Hanna and Allianic pointed out that some primates and elephants resist better than other storms, especially when presented with lightning and thunder.

“The most fearful specimens can become frightened and tend to take refuge in enclosed spaces,” Allianic explained. “Even large elephants and apes can behave like dogs or cats when they try to react to lightning and thunder.”

But while some animals try to escape the frightening noises, there are others who choose to get wet.

The good news is that furry animals, such as giant pandas, tigers, brown bears, kangaroos and other species, have the innate ability to shake and dry in a few seconds.

Very recently, Andrew Dickerson of the Georgia Institute of Technology, along with his colleagues Zachary Mills and David Hu, determined that these shakes were perfectly adapted to each species, its size and anatomy. And loose skin seems to play a key role in this process.

“By shaking around the body, that skin speeds up the time the droplets move away from the fur, ensuring a relative dryness in the firmer skin layer,” said Dickerson and his team.

This discovery also helped explain why every time a dog shakes, everything around it is soaked while the animal ends up completely dry.

How to pet and play with a Guppy fish ?


The guppy, also known as lebistes or fish million is one of the fish species most demanded by lovers of aquarium fluvial and one of the main reasons derives from the fact that this species is optimal to reproduce with great ease.

Knowing the species a little:

Its origin is of Trinidad, Barbados, Venezuela and north of Brazil mainly.

Their scientific names are: Poecilia reticulata, Lebistes poeciloides, Girardinus guppy and Lebistes reticulatus.

It is ideal for beginners, for being a prolific, peaceful, resistant fish.

Commonly known as: guppy, fish million or lebistes.

They are fish of hot water and it is recommended to raise them in temperatures between 22 C and 28 C (optimal: 25)

They are fish tolerant to the conditions of the water and it is possible to raise them to room temperature (as long as it does not move far from the interval above) 1L is recommended. Or 1.5L. Of water per cm of adult fish
It is advisable to use filter tanks, so that oxygen helps to increase the average life.

Their food will mainly be on the surface of the tank and less from the bottom (as indicated by their mouth, positioned on the top of the head), although on more than one occasion you will see them in the background pecking some food rest (they are very sweet)

Their metabolism is very fast and it is recommended to feed them several times a day but in small quantities.

The food can be very varied, since in addition to the flakes for tropical fish, you can give them mosquito larvae, flakes, algae tablets and freeze-dried food, papillas made by hand (made with vegetables, meat, fish and some vitamin supplement).

On the physiognomy, the males are smaller than the females and they have a fin in its bottom in the form of tube called gonopodio that they use to reproduce.

Male guppys stand out for their beautiful colors, which vary from greens, blues, reds and even brindles, while females are generally olive colored and only show color on their dorsal fin and tail.

There are many variants: veil tail, round, sword, flag, lyre, triangular, etc.

The life expectancy of the species is approximately one year.

They can be kept in aquariums of any size, preferably planted with as much vegetation as possible.

Substrate can be placed normal sand or fine gravel.

This species is susceptible to rotting of fins, secondary bacterial and mold infections.

Aspects to consider for reproduction, birth and subsequent breeding of guppy:

This species reaches sexual maturity three months after birth.

Guppy males are very sexually active and for this reason you will see that they are continually engaged in chasing females.

During sex, the male is placed near the female in the form of an “S” and uses gonopodium to shoot packages of sperm to female.

One important reason to consider why this species reproduces quickly is because even when females are fertilized and give birth to fry, they can retain part of the males’ sperm to self-fertilize for a season. Many times this makes it difficult to determine who the father is.

The guppies are ovoviviparous, that is to say that the females develop the eggs in their interior until they mature and they light the fry.

When the female becomes pregnant, an increase in size may be observed during gestation, in addition to a characteristic black spot on the back.

The spot that appears on the females will increase in size as the time of delivery approaches. Also, when the time of delivery is approaching, You will notice how the female changes her physiognomy and has a “round pansite”, it becomes somewhat “square”, a phenomenon that is due to the fact that the amount of fry within her have “deformed” her belly, But it will return to normal once the fry are born. Sometimes even small black spots can be seen inside the spot, which are the eyes of the fry.

The birth of the fry usually does not occur in a single moment, but they are born little by little, even the birth can last several days. (Maximum 3)

The fry at birth, initially fall to the bottom in the form of “ball” to immediately afterwards swim.

The number of offspring depends on the size of the mother and other factors.

The layers can range from 3 fry to a maximum of 50.

The swelling of the female pansite and the black spot disappears after lighting all the fry, otherwise it means that it has not yet finished and that more fry are on the way.

Fry do not actively swim shortly after birth, so you will notice that they hide under aquatic plants or places far away and difficult to access, so that they are not eaten.

After childbirth it is advisable to remove the females that otherwise will continue to be harassed by the males.

Feed the fry with: freshly hatched artemia, zooplankton, prepared in crushed flakes, boiled egg yolk, parboiled chicken liver and / or grindal worm. Fry are sensitive to ammonia concentrations.


Discover the Basics to Educate your Dog


The dog is not considered man’s best friend for a few reasons, since for millennia he has proven himself as the most loyal and affectionate ally with mankind. Although by nature a dog is an affectionate animal with its owners, being always grateful to whom it feeds or gives love, it is not bad to improve the education that the pet will already have by instinct.

For this you can go to a guide to train dogs or look online for professional ads and academies specializing in dog education. However, before going to such help, it is not enough to familiarize ourselves with some basic principles of canine education.

The first thing to keep in mind is that every dog needs to learn certain behaviors if we want him to take his needs away from home, not to bark the guests or to stay next to his master when he goes for a walk. In order to introduce these and other behaviors into a dog’s mind, it is necessary to follow a series of recommendations as simple as they are useful.

Importance of repetition. The only way a dog can learn something is by repeating it dozens of times. That is why, for example, it is necessary to get the dog to do his needs until he understands that he can only do them outside the house.

Utility of positive reinforcement. Although dogs are very receptive to discipline, we must differentiate between positive reinforcements, as a treat, and negative ones, such as physical punishment. It is proven that the former, if not abused, help the dog to retain what is learned, while the latter is counterproductive, because the animal will end up obeying for fear and with the possibility of it being revealed attacking its owner or third parties.

Need for tranquility and time. Of course, the best thing to educate a dog is to do it without worry. It is best to reserve some time of the day or week and dedicate it entirely to the pet, in order that with patience finish learning.

Differentiation between servant and master. The sentimental ties between a person and his or her pet can become tremendously strong, something that no doubt already knows who has had pets, which offer a totally pure and unconditional love. But it must be remembered that during education the dog is a pupil, because if the educator is not firm enough the animal will choose not to pay too much attention or directly ignore it.

Besides the education itself to make the dog more docile and servile, we must not forget the learning of commands, or orders, that allow to have the animal always controlled.

Commands should be taught just like a behavior, through repetition and with positive reinforcement, something that will eventually be internalized by the animal and will end up becoming a habit. The ideal is to start with simpler commands and to complicate them as the training progresses. The commands can be either gestural or vocal or a sum of both.

The name of the dog. The first command usually learned by a dog is its own name, which is used primarily to call it. Teaching it is very simple, just walk away from it and call it by its name so that it approaches.

Sitting / Quiet. The second command is usually one of these two, in order for the animal to calm down or remain in a static situation. A very useful command to prevent the dog from getting too excited, in situations of tension or play.

Varied tricks. After learning the basic commands, any dog can master a variety of different commands, from rolling to fooling. Of course, the more complicated commands will require more effort and time, but all are controllable by giving them the necessary energy.


Why does my Dog lick its paws?


If your Super Pupil shows this behavior, you should know what is happening. There may be many reasons why a dog may lick or nibble on its paws. Below we will talk about some causes that should concern you and others that are relatively normal.

Causes that require immediate attention:

Injury Pain : If your dog only licks one leg, it can mean pain in that region. He probably does it because he somehow thinks it will allay the discomfort. The cause could be some wound, insect bites, a thorn, a broken nail and for that we should examine it at home and then take it to the vet.

Boredom or stress : The life of a dog with little physical and / or mental activity is definitely very boring. No matter the breed or size, dogs need exercise and play to keep themselves occupied and happy.

Licking your legs many times is a sign of boredom, especially if your dog leaves little, or spend much time alone at home. In nervous or anxious dogs, this behavior is much more frequent.

The action of licking the legs produces an increase in the production of endorphins, so when the dog feels stressed and decides to lick its legs, you will find a certain “relief” that will initially calm it but that with the passage of time will become In a harmful addiction that will damage both psychologically and physically.

External parasites : If your dog spends a lot of time outdoors (park, garden or beach) especially in hot places, it is very likely that fleas or ticks are on your skin, these bugs cause them a lot of itching. If that is the cause, they can get scratched and licked to cause a severe injury to the skin.

Insect stings : If your dog spends a lot of time outdoors (the park, the garden or the beach) especially in hot places, he may suffer from insect bites.

Allergy : Allergic reactions can produce hives on the legs and other parts of the body, the itching can be such that your dog can spend hours licking its paws.

Other causes :

Cleaning : For some dogs, staying clean is important and they enjoy cleaning their paws.

Arthritis : In senior dogs, the licking of the legs may be due to joint pain, which may be a sign of arthritis.

The main thing is to know your Super Puppy, watch it and pay attention to the details: how often lick, how and when. Physically check the area of ??the legs that licks constantly and be alert to possible irritations and injuries. Consider the causes we have already mentioned and take it to the veterinarian to help you determine the why of your Super Puppy’s behavior so that you can help him with that problem.


Who are Smarter – Dogs or Cats?

Infinity of studies show that indeed cats and dogs possess a high degree of intelligence, a concept that finally came to defeat the classic that they taught us from children: animals act only by instinct … now that is clear, a new question is born, who Are they smarter, cats or dogs?

Last year an American newspaper published a note that read “cats are smarter than dogs”. One researcher had conducted an experiment where the animals had to pull a few strings (simulating one of the great cat-like proms that like to play with wool balls), with their paws in order to receive some reward. At the time, the dogs responded better than their opposites. The conclusion was “that there is no evidence that cats understand the operation of the ropes” …

Undoubtedly, cat lovers would surely interpret the results differently. They would explain that “the cat is an independent being”, so it is natural that he has not responded as expected. Or if we wanted to express it in simpler words: “because they would do what others want.”

Either way, the experiment was also common, limited. So it was decided to carry out a more specific and complex study. This time he was in charge of a group of researchers of the University of Oxford. They analyzed the size of the brain in different groups of mammals (a total of 500 species) and compared it with their evolution over 60 million years.

The final result revealed that the brains of the monkeys were the most developed, both in size and in connections, followed by him of horses, dolphins, camels and dogs, who with evolution had developed more connections to socialize With other species, including humans.

How to Play with your Pet Cat at Home ?


Something essential in the life of any feline is having fun and games, especially if it’s a puppy or a young cat. If you play with your cat, not only will he be happy, entertained, happy and fit, but also a way for the owner to relax and enjoy himself. For this, it is not necessary to spend a lot of money. Just use “homemade” toys. Most home-grown felines like to play with strings (you should always be careful not to eat them and then cause clogs). The simplest toy that we can create is to buy the thread for matambre or similar, like shoelaces.

With a piece of the thread more or less long is enough. Take one end and the other end in front of your cat to see, and move it to both sides. That way you will get their attention. They like to chase things that move in front of their noses.

Some like to play sitting almost without moving from the place. Others, however, if you walk or run to the side of the house (and the thread reaches the ground) will chase you everywhere.

A variation of the simple thread of matambre is to tie one end to a stick so that it is like “a fishing rod” (this is for our comfort). It can be a wooden stick that has left us, a meter of wood that will not serve, a metal hanger … whatever you have at hand and that you find comfortable. You can also attach to the other end a pellet of paper that are easy to make, a piece of cloth, several strips of cloth so that they remain as a feather duster, a silver paper ball, etc …
Some cats play with the Roll paper from the toilet paper or the kitchen.

Others, leaving them with paper balls and throwing them through the air, are enough for them to run all over the house. Nor can we forget the famous wool balls!

There are also felines who like “fighting” with dolls, clinging to the front legs and kicking the back. Some teddy that is not very big and that we do not mind breaking it will be ideal. We can take part in this game taking care not to be scratched or scratched, and moving the doll so that it will attack him, even something you will like will be that the teddy “hide.”

For example: if you are playing with your cat in the living room, next to the armchair, grab the doll by a corner; When you see it, you hide it on one side. Then make him see it again and hide it; You will see that your cat will be in a position to attack. When you surrender, release the doll so that it will not catch you.

Then there are the more sophisticated cats, chasing the light from the lanterns or the shadows cast on the wall. Of course not everyone does this, so it may be that your cat does not.

Another game that most cats are very attracted to is hiding our hand under a sheet, rug or other type of garment or cloth, and move it from side to side. The cat will notice that something is wandering around underneath and will try to catch your hand.

Another thing that pretty much all cats fascinate is a cardboard box. Yes, yes, something as simple as a shoe box, a cookie or similar. They are often very curious to explore, smell, see what is hidden inside it, or simply put a little head inside (if the box is large enough).

If the box is large and taller than your pussy, take a pencil, a stick, a teddy, etc … and add it to the edge. When your cat sees it, hide it and make a noise with the pencil against the cardboard wall. You will see how the eyes will dilate and begin to play, trying to catch the pencil, the teddy, kicking their forelegs against the walls of the box …

Despite all these ideas, it should not be forgotten that pet stores and veterinary centers have endless toys designed for the game and enjoy your feline. Here are some ideas about toys that you can give your cat:

– Scrapers with springs and balls at its end.
– Mice of rope or rag.
– Plastic balls with bells inside.
– Lasers (Remember that some time ago were very fashionable? Some cats chase the red light, of course not all).
– Plumeritos …

There are many products for cats, but whether they are homemade or bought, what we should always try is to have a fun time for our cats and ourselves.


Why do Birds peck at Feathers so much?


All birds arrange their feathers, groom them and spend much of their time caring for the plumage. And there is something that also do a lot of them that is the picking or pecking of the feathers. This can become really aggressive and even life threatening.

There are many problems that induce this picaje. The owner must also observe the birds that are caged. And not only the bird itself but also must observe the bottom of the cage and even the ground around it in case the number of feathers that fall everywhere is excessive.

Birds can “catch mania” and as a result of jealousy or boredom can start an excessive picaje. Another cause may be a cage change to a smaller cage or site reduction if new specimens are introduced into the same cage; Some cannon can be broken of pen or become wounds where it occurs later the picaje.

If the birds are in the breeding season, excessive grooming may also end up pricking.

It is necessary to watch the feeding of the bird. Must be varied in textures and nature: varied seeds, fruits, vegetables, etc. should be the components of a balanced diet.

General diseases such as liver disease or intestinal parasites can cause the birds to peck. It is essential to observe the cage where the excrement is deposited and to go to the veterinarian as soon as an abnormality is detected. We will use it to remind the bird owners that, when they go to the vet, they do not clean the cage.

The information obtained by the veterinarian from the habitat where the bird lives is fundamental. You can see what kind of seeds you eat and what not, you can see the feces, taking a sample to analyze, you can see the inside of the hollow sticks of the cage in case there were piojillo ….

Birds also have allergies, the best known is allergy to some seeds, particularly sunflower.

The birds most affected by solitary picaje and those of medium or large size: yakos, macaws, nymphs, etc. Parakeets and canaries are less affected.

The veterinarian must, in addition to carefully observing the cage, perform a skin examination, skin scrapings, biopsies and / or cytologies, fungal cultures, etc.

The treatment is really difficult due to the wide variety of causes. If the beak is behavioral, the handling must be corrected, that is to say, to improve the conditions of the cage, so that it is more spacious and with the minimum dangers, to avoid the boredom, trying to provoke games with special devices even with food that causes Some exercise, leaving the radio or television connected when leaving the bird alone at home, put some tub for your entertainment or even adding company of the same species.

The veterinarian will advise on what is the best solution for your bird, in addition to helping with appropriate drugs that he himself will prescribe.

The best, prevention: knowing the needs of each bird both physical and psychological. Trust your vet also in these cases.


Birds flying at 150 Km per Hour


Imagine battling a hurricane in the face with no more defense than your own body.

Scientists in the United States recorded this incredible feat by placing satellite transmitters on a species of migratory shorebird known as the Curlew Curlew, Numenius phaeopus.

One of the birds, called “Hope” or “Hope” by researchers at the Center for Conservation Biology of Williamsburg, Virginia, flew for 27 hours against the storm at a speed of 14 kilometers per hour, but after crossing the center Hurricane was driven by the wind to reach about 150 kilometers per hour.

The study reveals “the really impressive dynamics of bird migration,” Fletcher Smith, the lead biologist in charge of the project, told BBC World.

“We have found that the curling curlers can maintain their flight through a hurricane or a tropical storm,” he added.

“We accompanied the transmitters to eight birds that managed to survive the passage through these storms.”


The strength of birds to survive extreme conditions is due to the large amounts of fat reserves that accumulate in their organisms.

“These birds almost double their weight before embarking on a migration. They get fat by ingesting berries in Canada and crabs at stop sites during their trip south, “Fletcher explained.

The curlews studied in this project are reproduced in the Mackenzie River Delta and in Hudson Bay, Canada. In the spring they make stops between the states of Georgia and Virginia in the United States and spend the winter of the Northern Hemisphere in various places from the Caribbean to northeastern Brazil.

A different population of this species breeds in Alaska and spends the winter on the Pacific coast between Mexico and Chile, according to the biologist.


Warlike birds that survive hurricanes can however succumb to a mortal enemy, human action.

Harrier curlers are victims of hunters in the Caribbean, and Smith and his colleagues are working with local organizations to try to protect them on their migratory route.

“In the fall last season we lost two birds with satellite transmitters due to hunters on the island of Guadalupe,” Smith said. “At least in one country, hunters have now committed themselves to voluntarily reducing the number of dead birds.”

Another threat in the Caribbean is the loss of mangroves and bathing and the construction of resorts, so more needs to be done to protect the birds’ natural habitat, according to the US biologist.

“We do not know exactly what the influence of these threats has been on the fall of these bird populations, which have suffered a decline of 50% since the mid-1990s.”

Smith’s research was quoted by the American Bird Conservancy in a statement calling for unregulated hunting on Caribbean sites including the Guadeloupe archipelago, Martinique, Barbados, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname.

“Some local people use the bathed as a hunting site and kill with impunity everything that flies. Among the victims are two trinadors curlers that were being monitored with transmitters and were called Machi and Goshen. Throughout its life it is estimated that Machi flew more than 43,000 km and survived Tropical Storm Maria. Goshen had flown more than 22,000 km and battled Hurricane Irene. They landed in Guadeloupe, a site they had avoided on other trips, and died at the hands of hunters, “said the American Bird Conservancy statement.

“This indiscriminate killing must be stopped,” said George Fenwick, the organization’s president, who called on the French government to end unregulated hunting in the archipelago of Guadeloupe, a French overseas territory.


Smith plans to continue using satellite transmitters to monitor the migration of these birds, which should be viewed with eyes of great appreciation and respect, according to BBC World.

“I would like the readers of this note to appreciate the huge flights these birds are capable of,” he said.

“We have documented seven flights of more than 5,600 km, including four continuous flights without stops of between more than 6,100 and 6,900 km over the Atlantic Ocean from Canada to South America.”

“The flight of more than 6,900 km took the bird 145 hours, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to northeastern Brazil. Back and forth between their breeding sites and destinations during the winter, these birds make round trips of over 20,000 kms per year! ”